In many development initiatives, M&E is something only seriously thought about once design is well on the way or sometimes even not before implementation has already started. In M4I this would be unthinkable. As the model shows, M&E is kind of the glue that links together all other key functions. It is informed by strategic design at the start and keeps updated by implementation processes, achievements, effects and changes in the context of the initiative. In turn, it informs strategic guidance functions as well as the operations. Such central role of M&E can only flourish in a learning environment.